- "The drainage system is an open system characterized by inputs and outputs". Discuss.
An area of land drained by a main river and its tributeries is called a drainage basin.
it is part of the land surface through which a river receives it's supply of water. A drainage basin is part of the hydrological cycle. The drainage basin is an open system, as it receives materials through outputs. This means that in additional to the cycling of water within the basin, there are exchanges of water outside the basin. A drainage basin is also known as a catchment area as represented above.
- PRECIPITATION: All forms of water received either rain; snow, fog etc
- INTERCEPTION: The trapping or capturing of rain drops by leaves of plants.
- SURFACE STORAGE: Amount of water stored on the surface pending infiltration.
- GROUND WATER STORAGE: Water stored under the ground at a zone of saturation.
- CHANNEL STORAGE: Water stored in the rivers or oceans.
- VEGETATION STORAGE: Water stored withing plants tissues and stems ( plants vessels).
- THROUGH FALL: water that drips off the leaves of plants.
- STEM FLOW: Water flowing or mingling down three trunks.
- INFILTRATION: The downward movement of water into the soil.
- OVER LAND FLOW: Excess rain water that flows away on the surface without getting into the ground. It is also called surface flow.
- THROUGH FLOW: Water that flows laterally within the soil following channnels created by plants roots or cavities created by animals.
- GROUND WATER FLOW or BASE FLOW: Water flowing slowly under the ground laterally at the table or zone of soil saturation.
- CHANNEL FLOW: Rain water that flows directly into the channel of river.