A soil profile refers to a vertical secion accross the soil from top to bottom showing the different horizons often distinct in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. An idealized soil profile consist of three made layers namely the A, B, and C horizons. only zoonal or matured soils have welled developed profiles.
The A horizon is known as the top soil. It is dark in colour and rich in rganic matter, matter due to the presence o vegetation and animals species which provides the readily needed orgabinic matter for decomposition , as such its is azone of Bilogical activity.
The B horizon is the middle horizon where materials are precipitated ; it is lighter in colour due to its lack of organic matter. Since it involves deposition of materials brought above, it is therefore a zone of illuviation or the illuvial zone. the B zone is also known as the sub-soil.
FOR EITHER THE FERRALITIC SOIL TYPE, CANDIDATES ARE EXPECTED TO BRING OUT THE VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL PROFILES.
- Soils have less organic matter on the surface and the thin litter store due to high rate of cycling and decomposition, identified by losses through leaching and nutrient up take by plants. Soils are reddish brown as a result of high precipitation and clay minerals break down rapidly.
- High concentration of iron and allunminium bind soils together to form a thick layer which is very hard to till called hard plan or laterites.
- Soils can support a dense luxuxuriant vegetation though infertite but can support the growth of trees due to high yearly rainfall and temperature.
- Soils are heavy and porous with distinct horizons due to constant mixing of soils organisms.