- a) Explain five ways by which fossils have been used to determine ancient climate.
b) Write a brief geologic history of the bivalves.
c) Draw an anisomyrian bivalves shell and label the following parts: muscle scar, dentition, ligament.
- a) Outline the nature of hard parts of organisms that make them suitable for fossilization.
b) Discuss the effects of transportation, diagenesis and post depositional changes on fossilization.
- a) What do you understand by an unconformity?
b) How can you recognise the following unconformities on geological maps?
i) Angular unconformity
ii) Heterolithic unconformity.
c) state the characteristics of :
i) Parallel unconformities;
ii) Non-depositional unconformities
d) Outline the importance of unconformities.
- a) Define the term magmatic differentiation.
b) Describe the following processes of magmatic differentiation:
i) Crystal settling;
ii) Mechanical filter pressing.
c) Describe the following processes in the formation of igneous rocks:
iii) Liquid immiscibility.
- a) Name the three main types of rocks.
b) Explain how each of the rocks mentioned in a) above were formed.
c) Outline the importance of rocks to a geologist?
- a) What do you understand by maturity of a sediment?
b) Explain the compositional and textual maturity of a sediment.
c) Relate the maturity of a sediment to the various stages of a river.
- a) Discuss the various features associated with sea level changes and the nature of the evidence.
b) Briefly differentiate between:
i) Bars and spits;
ii) Tombolo and cuspate foreland.
- a)What do you understand by exogenetic mineral deposits?
b) With examples, outline the different types of exogenetic mineral deposit.
- a) Describe five different topographic features found on the ocean floor.
b) Define the sea floor spreading hypothesis and explain three evidences that have been proposed to prove its existence.
- a) Explain how the following can trigger mass movement of rocks and soil:
i) Angle of slope;
ii) Rock type;
iii) Groundwater or rainfall;
iv) Ground vibration.
b) Outline the attempt that are made to manage and control unstable slopes.
- a) Explain the classification of crystals into systems and classes.
b) Outline the symmetry elements of the following:
c) Define the following forms as used in crystallography