a. What do you understand by soil system and soil ecosystem equilibrium? b.Refering to a named ecosystem, show how 2 of the following pairs of ecosys


gce advanced level geography

a. What do you understand by soil system and soil ecosystem equilibrium?

b.Refering to a named ecosystem, show how 2 of the following pairs of ecosystem components are interelated

i. Climate and soil

ii. Climate and vegetation

iii. Soils and vegetation

    An ecosystem is said to be in equilibruim when the inputs are almost equal to the output in other words. An equilibruim in an ecosystem refers to a situation where the biotic and abioic components are almost in a stable relelationship. 

   However, when a disequilibruim introduced in an ecosystem, a new equilibruim is re-establish either at a high level or at a lower levelAn equilibruim possesses the following characteristics

   Energy flow. The fact that the amount of energy turns to reduce from one biotuic level to another  as it flows, there is self regulation of orgaisms at each biotic level. In this way , an equilibruim is maintained.

  Nutrient re-cycline. The fact that nutrients are re-cycline permits an ecosystem to be maintained in equilibruim that is there is a possibility for nutrients that have been used to be re-used.

  The fact that there is adoption. The biotic components of the ecosystem develope mechanisms to adapt in their physical milliue permits an ecosystem to be maintained.


1a. Distinguish between over population and carrying capacities.
 b.  How can population policies be used to control population growth?
 c. Explain the factors that trigar forced migration.


a.   Over population (refer)

carrying capacity means the maximum population that can be sustained by available resources of a particular region or country and this carrying capacities was introduced by Thomas Mathus

b. Population policies are legislations or laws used by governments in order to check population growth. This policies include;

  • Punishment and incentives
  • Legalisation of abortion
  • Legalisation of sterelisation
  • Giving allowances to small families
  • Imposition of taxes on people with large families
  • Legalisation o monogamy

    This measures have helped to reduce birth rate  in many countries especially in developed world and emerging countries. Examples of these policies include; the China one child policy, the Singapore sterilisation scheme.
     Migration policies can also influence population growth. Some govenment use restrictive migration policies to reduce the number of immigrants in the country examples of such countries include; England and Germany
c. It is the movement of people from one one place to another against their will.
  • Natural disasters
  • political atmosphere
  • Religious persicutions 
  • Political persicutions
  • Over population


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